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Stai uscendo da Pornhub. Vai Indietro Stai uscendo da Pornhub. Rimuovi gli Annunci Pubblicità di Traffic Junky. Putain francaise de Bordeaux suce grosse queue Blowjob on first date K visite. Suce belle jeune francaise Melanie de Libourne en ecoliere se caresse et suce part 1 4. Maman est occupee, elle se fait baiser!
Itty bitty titty redhead, pierced nips and trimmed pussy! Your place is here, next to my chest and my innocence. Sexy petite 18 year old. Sweet and innocent, but loves 2 squirt! Pubblicità di Traffic Junky. Mélanie de Libourne en dessous blancs suce et se fait doigter partie 1. Traduci il titolo del video nella tua lingua x. Vuoi aiutare a tradurre Pornhubnella tua lingua? Crea un conto gratis adesso. Excel, Lotus , ecc. Progettazione dei videogiochi Utilizzare per gli aspetti logici e narrativi della progettazione dei videogiochi.
AKLF per la progettazione grafica e artistica dei videogiochi Vedere anche: Sistemi operativi per palmari Class here: Android, iOS, Blackberry, Tizen. NoSQL databases Class here: Distributed ledgers Class here: Peer-to-peer networks Class here: Programmi per database Classificare qui: Oracle, Access, SQL, ecc.
Practical applications of information technology Class here: Crittografia dei dati Vedere anche: Informatica applicata Class here: Applicazioni informatiche nelle arti e nelle discipline umanistiche.
Applicazioni informatiche nelle scienze sociali e comportamentali Vedere anche: Applicazioni informatiche nel settore tecnologico e industriale 1. Intelligenza artificiale Vedere anche: Apprendimento automatico Machine learning Class here: Affrontare i disturbi alimentari Class here: Affrontare problemi di droga e alcol Class here: Coping with addiction Use for: Affrontare ansie e fobie Class here: Coping with mental health issues Use for: Coping with communication difficulties Class here: Coping with sleep problems Class here: Affrontare la morte e il lutto Class here: Diete e dietologia Vedere anche: Esercizio fisico e allenamento Class here: Pilates, aerobics, stretching, zumba, spinning, circuit training, cross-training.
Esercizi yoga Vedere anche: Weight training Class here: Famiglia e relazioni interpersonali: Incontri, relazioni, convivenza e matrimonio: Cura e allevamento dei bambini: Gestione finanziaria personale Class here: Consigli sulle scelte di carriera e sul raggiungimento del successo.
CVs, resumes, cover letters, interview techniques, employment rights, dealing with job loss 1. Codice della strada e guida dei veicoli Classificare qui: Consigli per i consumatori Vedere anche: Proprietà immobiliare per i privati: Student life Class here: Tecniche di miglioramento della memoria e del pensiero Classificare qui: Autosufficienza e stili di vita ecosostenibili Vedere anche: Palmistry, chiromancy Class here: Terapie alternative, cure e salute Class here: Nature therapy Class here: Medicina tradizionale e rimedi erboristici Classificare qui: Energie della Terra Classificare qui: Sogni e interpretazione dei sogni Vedere anche: Poteri e fenomeni psichici Classificare qui: Mostri e creature leggendarie Class here: Sciamanesimo, paganesimo e druidismo Vedere anche: Stregoneria e Wicca Vedere anche: Libri di cucina di cuochi celebri e chef televisivi Classificare qui: Cucina per diete e regimi alimentari specifici Use with: Cucinare per le feste Use with: Cucinare con strumenti specifici Classificare qui: Cucinare con riso e cereali Class here: Ricette e corsi di cucina: Torte e decorazioni, glassatura e decorazioni con lo zucchero 1.
Sigari e fumo Vedere anche: Collezionare monete, banconote, medaglie, sigilli numismatica Class here: Orologi antichi, orologi da polso, carrillon e scatole musicali.
Collezionare mobili e mobili antichi Use with: WCC for restoring antique furniture. Enigmi e quiz Vedere anche: Giochi al coperto Vedere anche: Manuali di arte e pittura Vedere anche: Cucito e tessuti Classificare qui: Tintura dei tessuti Classificare qui: Batik e tintura a riserva.
Lavorazione dei tappeti Vedere anche: Filatura e tessitura meccanica Vedere anche: Creazione di gioielli e collane Vedere anche: Finiture e rivestimenti decorativi Classificare qui: Lavori in terracotta, ceramica, vetro Vedere anche: Decorazioni in legno Classificare qui: Incisione, modellatura e colatura a stampo Classificare qui: Lavorazione cartacea e libraria Classificare qui: Calligrafia e lettering a mano Vedere anche: Artigianato rurale Vedere anche: Veicoli stradali e a motore: Autobus, tram e veicoli commerciali: Camper vans, Recreational vehicles 1.
Trattori e mezzi agricoli: Manutenzione e manuali dei veicoli Vedere anche: Biciclette e trasporti non motorizzati: Urban rail transit systems Class here: Costruzione e manutenzione delle imbarcazioni Vedere anche: Parodie e imitazioni non narrative Vedere anche: Guide al design, alla decorazione e allo stile degli interni Vedere anche: Guide allo shopping Vedere anche: Manutenzione della casa Vedere anche: Ristrutturazione e ampliamento della casa Vedere anche: Giardinaggio di piante in vaso Use for: Natura e mondo naturale: Dinosauri e mondo preistorico: Animali marini e costieri: Animali da fattoria e da lavoro: Parchi nazionali e riserve naturali: Alberi, fiori e piante selvatiche: Rocce, minerali e fossili: Storia locale Classificare qui: Storia familiare, ricerca genealogica Vedere anche: Guide di viaggio e guide turistiche Use for: For example, 5PS to indicate holidays aimed at a particular group Vedere anche: Letteratura di viaggio classica Classificare qui: Carte e atlanti geografici Vedere anche: Mappe da viaggio Classificare qui: Mappe stradali e piante di città Classificare qui: Libri regalo Classificare qui: Articoli di cartoleria Classificare qui: Articoli di cancelleria Classificare qui: Narrativa a fumetti della tradizione europea Nella tradizione europea, i romanzi a fumetti sono in genere pubblicazioni singole e non parte di una serie, in genere destinate a un pubblico adulto, spesso con grafiche particolari e altro contenuto testuale letterario, di solito seri anziché umoristici; sono opere pubblicate in origine come romanzi a fumetti, non adattamenti di opere testuali.
Libri a fumetti europei: Libri a fumetti americani: Manga e fumetti di stile asiatico Questa sequenza comprende tutti i libri a fumetti giapponesi Manga e di altri paesi asiatici, tra cui coreani Manhwa e cinesi Manhua.
Kodomo Manga per bambini, ragazzi e ragazze, età 6—10 anni. Shôjo Manga per ragazze e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Shonen Manga per ragazzi e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Seinen Manga per uomini e donne giovani, dai 16 anni in avanti. Josei Manga concepito specificamente per donne giovani e adulte. Yaoi Chiamato anche Boy Love; Manga con relazioni omosessuali tra giovani di sesso maschile, ma per giovani lettrici di sesso femminile.
Qualifier 5X as appropriate 1. Manga per adulti con scene di natura apertamente sessuale o violenta; utilizzare con Qualificatore 5X se opportuno Vedere anche: Manga designed for adults over 18 years , of an extreme erotic or pornographic nature. Qualifier 5X as appropriate Vedere anche: Manga featuring young female homosexual relationships often but not exclusively for a young female readership 1. Narrativa a fumetti e libri a fumetti: Do NOT use for titles that were subsequently made into films etc.
Strisce a fumetti Classificare qui: Libri per bambini e ragazzi e Materiale didattico Use with: Libri illustrati per bambini Use with: Libri per la prima infanzia Classificare qui: Storie illustrate Classificare qui: Immaginazione e gioco Classificare qui: Libri interattivi, libri gioco, libri di attività per bambini Utilizzare YBG per i libri di attività e interattivi per bambini, come i libri gioco, i libri con adesivi, ecc.
Libri di attività per bambini: Utilizzare senza altri codici per antologie di varie forme letterarie. Narrativa per bambini e ragazzi: Storie vere in forma romanzata Classificare qui: YFZR codes should never be the main subject code 1. YFZV codes should never be the main subject code 1. Regioni polari e habitat di alta montagna 1.
YNNH for titles about pet care 1. Non-educational books about math and numbers 1. Time travel Use with: Stuffed or soft toys Class here: Fairies, elves, etc 1. UFO ed extraterrestri Class here: Materiale educativo, prima lingua e lingua madre: Media studies Class here: Sports studies, gym class, physical training PT. Opere di consultazione per bambini e ragazzi: Libri regalo per bambini Classificare qui: Articoli di cartoleria per bambini Classificare qui: Articoli di cancelleria per bambini Classificare qui: Places of interest Use for: Franca Contea Use for: Jura 39 Vedere anche: Alti Pirenei Class here: Pays de la Loire: The Seine Class here: The Dordogne Class here: Refers to the nine counties of Ulster: The Shannon Class here: Welsh Marches Class here: The Lake District Class here: The Thames Class here: The Cotswolds Preferred code: The Pennines Preferred code: Northumberland National Park Class here: Lowland e Borders Scozzesi Class here: Galloway Forest Park The Grampians Class here: Northwest Highlands Class here: Ebridi Esterne Class here: Lewis, Harris, Uist, Benbecula, Barra, etc.
Inner Hebrides Class here: Brecon Beacons Class here: The pilgrim trail, El Camino de Santiago Madeira - Autonomous Region Use for: Azores - Autonomous Region Use for: Appennino Settentrionale Preferred code: Lago d Orta, Lugano, Idro Fiume Po e affluenti Class here: Fiume Arno e affluenti Class here: Fiume Tevere e affluenti Class here: Appennino Centrale Preferred code: Costa Smeralda Preferred code: Isole Eolie Classificare qui: Costiera Amalfitana Preferred code: Tavoliere delle Puglie Preferred code: Appennino Meridionale Preferred code: Transdanubian Mountains Class here: North Hungarian Mountains Class here: Great Hungarian plain Class here: Berounka, Luznice, Otava, Sazava rivers Nitra, Orava rivers 1.
Lika - Karlovac Class here: Fiume Danubio e affluenti Class here: Fiume Reno e affluenti Class here: Fiume Volga e affluenti Class here: Fiume Elba e affluenti Class here: Fiumi Oder-Neisse e affluenti Class here: Fiume Weser e affluenti Class here: Fiume Po e affluenti Prefer code in Northern Italy: Places of interest Vedere anche: Fiume Arno e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: Fiume Tevere e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: The Caucasus Use for: The Balkans Use for: Cotswolds Prefer code in South west England: Pennines Prefer code in North and northeast England: Appennino Settentrionale Prefer code in Northern Italy: Appennino Centrale Prefer code in Central Italy: Appennino Meridionale Prefer code in Southern Italy: Maremma Prefer code in Central Italy: Jordan River Class here: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Class here: Lesser Sunda Islands Class here: East Nusa Tenggara, West Timor Fiume Gange e affluenti Class here: Fiume Indo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Mekong e affluenti Class here: Fiume Yangtze e affluenti Class here: Fiume Giallo e affluenti Class here: Mahalangur Himal Class here: Makalu, Lhotse, Cho Oyu 1.
Repubblica Democratica del Congo Zaire Class here: Fiume Congo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Niger e affluenti Class here: Fiume Nilo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Zambesi e affluenti Class here: Midwest degli Stati Uniti: Parchi Nazionali di Wood Buffalo e dei laghi di Waterton. Columbia Britannica, Costa Sud: Columbia Britannica, Isola di Vancouver: Columbia Britannica, Costa Centrale: Stretto della Regina Carlotta.
Columbia Britannica, Costa Nord: Interlake e Manitoba Centrale: Parco Nazionale di Riding Mountain. Regione di Kivalliq e Parco Nazionale di Ukkusiksalik. Penisola di Bruce e Parco Nazionale. Isola del Principe Edoardo: Reford Gardens Class here: Mauricie Parco Nazionale de La Mauricie. Mingan Archipelago National Park Regione di Kluane e Parco Nazionale di Kluane. Whitehorse e Regione dei Laghi Meridionali.
Fiume Colorado e affluenti Class here: Rio Grande e affluenti Class here: Río Bravo del Norte. Use for the river, its tributaries, its valley and mouth. Fiume Mississippi-Missouri e affluenti Class here: Fiume St Lawrence e affluenti Class here: Fiume Yukon e affluenti Class here: Fiume Hudson e affluenti Class here: Spanish Virgin Islands Class here: Puerto Rican Virgin Islands Antille Olandesi Class here: Netherlands Antilles Vedere anche: Los Cabos Class here: Mexico City Class here: Valdes Peninsula, Los Alerces Santa Cruz AR Class here: Amazonian region Class here: Cayambe Coca, Yasuni, Sangay La Paz Class here: Tiwanaku, Tiahuanaco, Sorata Santa Cruz Class here: Salar de Uyuni, Torotoro If by chance we taste the wine and do not find that it corresponds to our expectations, we should have no hesitation in bringing up the matter with the sommelier.
We should always remember that the dining experience is one based on pleasure and conviviality; we should therefore not allow a faulty wine to spoil what might be an important occasion. Wine does its job best when it serves the overall dining experience, thanks to its natural capacity, when it is well chosen, to enliven the food without being either intrusive or submissive, cleansing the palate between one mouthful and the next and so reinvigorating our desire to take another bite.
If there is no doubt about our right to be subjective when choosing what wine to match with what food, it is equally certain that some pairings work better than others and are particularly successful in stimulating a general feeling of well-being.
To that end, we will give here some general indications as to possible criteria for selecting wines based on the type of food they are to accompany and suggest some classic examples of pairings. However, we remain convinced that, partly due to the unpredictable way many foods taste when they are cooked, imagination and personal inventiveness cannot but lead to greater interest and enjoyment in the realm of matching wines with food.
This consists in accompanying the dishes of a given region with the classic wines of the same zone, based on a rationale of affinity between their flavors and scents and the championing of typical local products. This rationale for matching calls for one to serve wines that are appropriate for the period of the year, such as cool, fresh whites in summer, vino novello in autumn or red wines in winter; this principle also leads to a corresponding alternative in which one modifies the temperature at which one serves wines slightly cooler in summer, a little warmer in winter.
Matching by similarity is to be sought in those cases where, for the sensations given by the wine and food to be in perfect balance, assonance between their characteristics is desirable. Dry white wines and semi- or fully sparkling wines that are not sweet Brut and Extra Brut are especially suitable, because their acidity and, in the case of bubbly wines, the presence of CO2 favor the secretion of gastric juices that prepare the body for receiving food.
Here the suggestions are similar to those for the aperitif, although in this case the structure of the white wines should be increased, especially if there are shellfish or seafood in general. One can also serve rosé wines or light reds with cold cuts such as salami or Parma ham , even if well-structured and aromatic white wines will go with them perfectly as well. Even though some people suggest that you should only drink water with soups, wine is still the best accompaniment for a good broth or consommé a dry white , a vegetable soup a rosé or a young red , or a particularly flavorful farmhouse soup a medium-weight red.
If the dish is vegetable-based, light, easy-drinking white wines are appropriate; if it contains fish you should serve more structured whites; if it is meat-based you should choose a red wine whose vigorousness reflects that of the flavor of the sauce itself lighter for a Bolognese sauce, richer for game. If, broadly speaking, it is true to say that you should drink white wine with fish, it is also true that there are many different types of white wine and that there are exceptions to the rule.
Depending on the individual dish in front of you, there are two criteria for choosing what wine to match with it: Here the choice of wine is dependent on how sweet the dessert is; sweet or medium-dry but never Brut sparkling wines are fine, as are sweet still or fortified wines: The general rules are:.
There are certain foods whose peculiar characteristics make it impossible — or at least very difficult — for them to be matched with any wine.
There is no choice but to drink water with them, or perhaps some other beverage, such as beer. Explanations Please note that the pages of the Website contain links to third party internet pages which are however not covered by this Policy. The Policy shall be updated by Santa Margherita S. This Policy is provided for the purposes prescribed by Art.
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Winery Vineyard Wines Wine culture. Ecosustainability Hospitality Events Contacts. Courses Wine, but what is wine? A little bit of unstuffy history Some details about the origins of fine wines The geography of wine: Wine, but what is wine? A little bit of unstuffy history. Some details about the origins of fine wines. Some details about the origins of fine wines We have already mentioned - just above — how Carmignano and Chianti came into being, anticipating to some extent the current denominations of origin.
Barolo Barolo has been known and appreciated since medieval times, but it is only since the midth century, thanks to the involvement of the French enologist Oudart and the impassioned efforts of Count Cavour, that this wine, once sweet and potentially unstable, has begun to be produced as a dry, stable wine that is suitable for aging.
Chianti The origins of Chianti can be traced back to the important influence of Grand Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany who, in the early decades of the 18th century — two hundred and fifty years before the creation of the D.
Amarone della Valpolicella One of the Italian wines that is enjoying the most success around the world did not even exist until a few decades ago. Bordeaux While we are on the subject of the English, the wines of Aquitaine also owe their success to British merchants and drinkers.
Port and Sherry What these two great wines have in common are not only the English, but especially The geography of wine: Vines are grown throughout the country, with"historic" areas such as: Eastern Europe Wine production in Eastern Europe is of major importance from the point of view of quantity.
Africa South Africa 8. The Americas United States of America The wine regions of Italy. Italy and its wine Regions: Valle d'Aosta Viticulture in the Valle d'Aosta is truly "heroic", yet in this Region producers succeed in making fine wines in spite of the difficulties the climate, mountainous terrain and stony soils that Nature puts in their way.
Piedmont The Alps and the plain, connected by mighty rivers: Lombardy This Region produces a broad range of wine styles, including as it does high mountains and wide valleys but also gentle hillsides that slope down towards the lakes.
In Italy there are at present August Albana di Romagna Tuscany 8: Rosso Conero, Vernaccia di Serrapetrona Umbria 2: Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane Campania 3: Cerasuolo di Vittoria Sardinia 1: Terrain or terroir In fact, the two terms are not at all synonymous, as terroir is a much broader and complex concept than just the terrain, or soil. Various elements are encompassed by this definition, such as: All the tastes of the earth.
The operations in the viticulturalphase can be subdivided into two groups: Planting and training operations These have to do with planting or replanting the vineyard and its management during the first few years of its existence.
Among them we can include: Which grape variety will be most in demand over the next few years? How will it behave in terms of quantity and quality, i. Grape production operations These consist of the cultivation techniques used in the ordinary, everyday management of the vineyard, with the aim of achieving a satisfactory balance between vegetation and grape production. The main ones are: Grape varieties from Italy and around the world.
Limiting ourselves only to the most important and famous ones, we can cite: Characteristic aromas of ripe white fruits bananas, apples ; good structure and acidity. An aromatic variety, it gives wines with attractive hints of peaches and especially of aromatic and officinal herbs sage, nettles, tomato leaves.
A very aromatic variety thanks to the high level of terpenic compounds it contains. A highly aromatic grape, with scents of rose petals, grapefruit, lichees and spices. Viognier Originally from the Rhône valley Condrieu , but now grown in many other countries.
It develops its characteristic aroma only when fully ripe and needs good acidity to be well-balanced. Evident aromas of ripe yellow fruits apricots, peaches and white flowers.
Chenin Blanc Itexpresses itself at its best in its area of origin Anjou and Vouvray in the Loire valley , but is also widely grown in other regions, with South Africa and New Zealand being among the most interesting.
Subject to attack by noble rot because of its particularly thin skin, it is therefore especially suitable for making sweet wines. Malvasia Grown all over the world under various names and in different biotypes, it makes wines with very varied characteristics, from dry to semi-sweet and sweet, from simple to highly aromatic, from still to semi- or fully sparkling, and from white to red from the black-skinned varieties.
It is difficult to define its characteristics given its differentiation in many varieties. When it is white and aromatic the most widely grown it gives wines with scents of flowers and citrus fruits, with hints of herbs.
If vinified in contact with the skins, it gives a copper-colored wine as the grape skins are pink. A wine of considerable structure, even when vinified without the skins, it displays marked fruity perfumes particularly of pears , which are especially persistent. Many characteristics that are similar to Chardonnay, including a natural predisposition for being made into sparkling wine. It makes wines that are particularly well-structured and delicately aomatic, as long as yields are kept low.
The chemical and physical composition of the grapes and of the must. Broadly speaking, then, we can identify the following components: Courses Vinification of red and rosé wines Vinification of white wines Vinification of sparkling wines Vinification of sweet wines and special wines Aging and maturation in casks and barriques.
Vinification of red and rosé wines. This may be done using the following methods: Vinification of white wines. Vinification of sparkling wines. Vinification of sweet wines and special wines.
Aging and maturation in casks and barriques. The properties of wood The first thing to bear in mind is that not all wines are suitable for aging in wood. Large barrels or small barrels?
The type of wood There are innumerable variables involved in barrel production which lead to differences, sometimes quite marked, in the aromas the wood will give the wine. Courses The principal components of wines The main macro-components of fermentation The pH of wine The not too secondary components Some technical details about polyphenols The volatile compounds in wine Sulphur dioxide.
The principal components of wines. If one carries out a physical and chemical analysis of a wine, one will undoubtedly find — in varying quantities — the following substances: The main macro-components of fermentation. Among the main components of a wine we undoubtedly find: Sensory effects If it is present to a high degree, ethyl alcohol provokes a pungent sensation on the nose. Sugars These are the dominant element in the must following the crushing of the grapes: Sensory effects The presence of sugars causes a particular sensation of sweetness, balancing out both bitterness and acidity, and increasing the roundedness and softness one perceives in the wine.
Acidity The acidity of a wine is a very significant factor in terms of its sensory characteristics freshness of taste, brightness of color and of its keeping potential.
Volatile acidity The volatile acidity of a wine is linked to the presence of acetic acid and to a much lesser extent to formic, butyric and propionic acids. The pH of wine. Sensory effects It presents the same characteristics as the total acidity being merely another way of measuring it , with a faintly biting, fresh sensation especially on the sides of the tongues when it is well-balanced pH 3.
The not too secondary components. Sensory effects The dry extract is an important parameter that can give a general idea about the depth, concentration, robustness and body of a wine. Glycerin This is an alcohol that forms naturally during the alcoholic fermentation but which we also find to a marked degree in dried grapes. Its concentration increases in particular according to: Mineral salts These may be salts of potassium, magnesium, calcium or salts of carbonic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids, etc..
Their presence varies between 1. Sensory effects These give the wines particular depth and especially a fresh, tangy flavor. Polysaccharides and macromolecules These are compounds with a high molecular weight that we can find — to a notable degree — in wine when it has been kept for a long time in contact with the lees from the fermentation, because they are to be found mainly in the cell walls of the yeasts.
Some technical details about polyphenols. The principal molecules in the family of polyphenols are: In turn, tannins can be divided up into: The volatile compounds in wine. They can therefore be split up into: Primary aromas In this group are included all the fragrant compounds that come directly from the grapes, where they are already present as sweet-smelling molecules or as precursors potential aromas that will subsequently evolve into real aromas.
We can find the following groups: Among those created pre-fermentation we can list: Among those deriving from the alcoholic fermentation there are: Among those from the malolactic fermentation there are: We can distinguish those that occur in an oxidative environment by means of oxidation by alcohols on aldehydes acetaldehyde and ketones from those in a reductive environment full barrels or other containers and bottles , as a consequence of phenomena of: To these we should certainly add those compounds that are yielded by wooden barrels such as: Always present in wines, this is a substance that performs various functions, carrying out: Sulfur dioxide is used at various times: Sensory effects In very limited doses, it reinforces the aromatic and gustatory sensations; if excessive, it generates acrid, pungent sensations wax matches, sulfur , which become unpleasantly sharp and bitter in the mouth.
Courses Visual assessment The scale of wine colors Olfactory assessment The families of aromas and their main descriptors Assessing taste and texture Wine faults Ideal conditions for tasting.
In this way you can examine: By observing the wine while it is being poured and by swirling the glass slowly, you will be able to judge: In assessing the effervescence you will pay attention to: The scale of wine colors. Greenish yellow This is a pale yellow with green highlights, which tend to diminish over time. Straw yellow This is the most common shade of light yellow, with sometimes quite significant differences in intensity more or less deep.
Golden yellow This is a deep yellow that one finds from certain grape varieties. Amber yellow This is the typical color of certain wines made from dried grapes, of fortified wines and, in any case, of wines that are made from extremely ripe grapes.
Rosé wines There is a broad range of shades for rosé wines: Pale pink This recalls the color of rose petals or of peach blossom. Cherry-red This is a fairly deep pink, which recalls the color of certain varieties of cherries.
Onion skin A deep pink, with highlights that tend towards orange. Red wines Unlike white wines, reds undergo a gradual decrease in the intensity of their color as they age. Purplish red This is intense and tends towards violet: Ruby red This is the most common color: Garnet red A color that tends towards blood red. Brick red Its orange tones remind us of the color of bricks. The sense of smell has many distinctive features, but in particular we should like to underline the following: A smell, the first time that we perceive it, is memorized in the limbic system, that is to say the irrational part of the brain where we also find emotions, fears, etc.
During olfactory assessment but the same goes for the retronasal stage the following are taken into consideration: Two other evaluations could be added for expert tasters: The families of aromas and their main descriptors. Floral aromas A sub-classification might distinguish between the scents of fresh flowers and those of dried flowers, with the former very present in young wines particularly whites and the latter being found in the bouquet of aged wines. Fruity aromas This is undoubtedly the group with the largest number of sub-categories, with the general rule - contradicted by many exceptions — that it is easier to associate white wines with pale-fleshed fruits and red wines with red fruits.
The classification might therefore be divided up according to the following groups: Vegetal aromas Here there are many sub-categories and different sensory manifestations: The following groups may be considered: Spicy aromas With a few exceptions, these are the preserve of more complex, well-structured wines, most of which will have been matured in wood.
One can distinguish between: Mineral aromas A category of smells that is not easy to classify and which can be interpreted in various different ways. Marine aromas A category of smells including those of iodine, seaweed and other marine scents, sometimes found in wines produced in areas close to the sea, which also display a marked tangy, saline quality.
Animal aromas If these are marked they represent a fault; if they are merely nuances complementing more fragrant scents they may be typical of a particular place or grape of origin or prolonged maturation of the wine. Lactic aromas These are smells that are to be found in wines especially whites that have undergone malolactic fermentation, with the formation of diacetyl. Ethereal aromas These derive from the processes of fermentation and also, especially, from those that the wine undergoes during maturation.
Chemical aromas These derive from chemical compounds in the wine such as alcohol, ethyl acetate, sulfur dioxide, acetaldehyde and others. Sub-dividing them somewhat artificially into categories, because many faults are often present simultaneously, we can distinguish between: In the former case, they disappear with a brief aeration of the wine; in the latter, they may be permanent, like the odors of rotten eggs deriving from the presence of hydrogen sulfide or mercaptans oxidation, identifiable in notes of baked apples or rotten almonds and walnuts acetic, because of the presence of acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate various other smells, such as the odors of stables and horse sweat because of the presence of ethyl phenols, geraniums due to the degradation of sorbic acid, cork taint from trichloroanisole, odors of medicines, of disinfectant, of celluloid and of plastic, mold, old barrels, etc.
Assessing taste and texture. Taste There are four flavors perceived by specific tastebuds in different parts of our tongues. The progressive scale of intensity in the four fundamental flavors may be considered to be as follows: Texture In the mouth, apart from the strictly gustatory sensations, we may also perceive a number of sensations that have todo with our sense of touch.
These sensations may be subdivided into the following categories: Ideal conditions for tasting. Courses Choosing and storing wine Wine service A glass for each wine The sequence for drinking wines Reading the label Special wines Wine and health. Choosing and storing wine. Which wines to choose The most enjoyable moment is choosing the wines to put in your cellar. The right place It is always better to keep wine underground, but not all cellars are suitable for this purpose. Here then are some suggestions, which are open to modification according to the season a bit cooler in summer, a bit warmer in winter and the temperature of the food being served cool if the food is cold, a little warmer if the dish is warm or boiling hot: For dessert wines it all depends what they are being served with.
The sweeter the dish, the higher the serving temperature will be. A glass for each wine. The sequence for drinking wines. The sequence for serving should follow these rules: Clearly, each one of these rules — because of the overlap of characteristics within individual wines — has some exceptions, as outlined below: If I have a wine that has been analyzed chemically as having One can show the total alcohol content by indicating, as well as the actual one, a second percentage, giving the level of alcohol that you would have if the residual sugars were to be fermented out: The following types of wine are considered special wines: Fortified wines These are produced by adding neutral spirit or brandy to grape must during fermentation or to a finished wine.
The most famous fortified wines are Marsala, Port and Madeira. Sparkling wines The difference between frizzante semi-sparkling and spumante sparkling wines is in the pressure of carbon dioxide contained in them: In the case of sparkling wines, depending on the quantity of residual sugars in the bottle, we find the following indications: Courses Choosing the wine General criteria for matching food and wine Specific recommendations for food and wine matching Difficult foods to match with wine even though nothing is impossible General criteria for matching food and wine.
The basic principles may be summarized as follows: Matching according to tradition This consists in accompanying the dishes of a given region with the classic wines of the same zone, based on a rationale of affinity between their flavors and scents and the championing of typical local products. Matching according to the season This rationale for matching calls for one to serve wines that are appropriate for the period of the year, such as cool, fresh whites in summer, vino novello in autumn or red wines in winter; this principle also leads to a corresponding alternative in which one modifies the temperature at which one serves wines slightly cooler in summer, a little warmer in winter.
On the contrary, with delicate foods similarly light wines are recommended; particularly scented foods because of the use of spices and herbs should be matched with very aromatic wines. Specific recommendations for food and wine matching. Aperitifs Dry white wines and semi- or fully sparkling wines that are not sweet Brut and Extra Brut are especially suitable, because their acidity and, in the case of bubbly wines, the presence of CO2 favor the secretion of gastric juices that prepare the body for receiving food.