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Traduci il titolo del video nella tua lingua x. Vuoi aiutare a tradurre Pornhubnella tua lingua? Crea un conto gratis adesso. Excel, Lotus , ecc. Progettazione dei videogiochi Utilizzare per gli aspetti logici e narrativi della progettazione dei videogiochi. AKLF per la progettazione grafica e artistica dei videogiochi Vedere anche: Sistemi operativi per palmari Class here: Android, iOS, Blackberry, Tizen.

NoSQL databases Class here: Distributed ledgers Class here: Peer-to-peer networks Class here: Programmi per database Classificare qui: Oracle, Access, SQL, ecc. Practical applications of information technology Class here: Crittografia dei dati Vedere anche: Informatica applicata Class here: Applicazioni informatiche nelle arti e nelle discipline umanistiche.

Applicazioni informatiche nelle scienze sociali e comportamentali Vedere anche: Applicazioni informatiche nel settore tecnologico e industriale 1. Intelligenza artificiale Vedere anche: Apprendimento automatico Machine learning Class here: Affrontare i disturbi alimentari Class here: Affrontare problemi di droga e alcol Class here: Coping with addiction Use for: Affrontare ansie e fobie Class here: Coping with mental health issues Use for: Coping with communication difficulties Class here: Coping with sleep problems Class here: Affrontare la morte e il lutto Class here: Diete e dietologia Vedere anche: Esercizio fisico e allenamento Class here: Pilates, aerobics, stretching, zumba, spinning, circuit training, cross-training.

Esercizi yoga Vedere anche: Weight training Class here: Famiglia e relazioni interpersonali: Incontri, relazioni, convivenza e matrimonio: Cura e allevamento dei bambini: Gestione finanziaria personale Class here: Consigli sulle scelte di carriera e sul raggiungimento del successo. CVs, resumes, cover letters, interview techniques, employment rights, dealing with job loss 1. Codice della strada e guida dei veicoli Classificare qui: Consigli per i consumatori Vedere anche: Proprietà immobiliare per i privati: Student life Class here: Tecniche di miglioramento della memoria e del pensiero Classificare qui: Autosufficienza e stili di vita ecosostenibili Vedere anche: Palmistry, chiromancy Class here: Terapie alternative, cure e salute Class here: Nature therapy Class here: Medicina tradizionale e rimedi erboristici Classificare qui: Energie della Terra Classificare qui: Sogni e interpretazione dei sogni Vedere anche: Poteri e fenomeni psichici Classificare qui: Mostri e creature leggendarie Class here: Sciamanesimo, paganesimo e druidismo Vedere anche: Stregoneria e Wicca Vedere anche: Libri di cucina di cuochi celebri e chef televisivi Classificare qui: Cucina per diete e regimi alimentari specifici Use with: Cucinare per le feste Use with: Cucinare con strumenti specifici Classificare qui: Cucinare con riso e cereali Class here: Ricette e corsi di cucina: Torte e decorazioni, glassatura e decorazioni con lo zucchero 1.

Sigari e fumo Vedere anche: Collezionare monete, banconote, medaglie, sigilli numismatica Class here: Orologi antichi, orologi da polso, carrillon e scatole musicali. Collezionare mobili e mobili antichi Use with: WCC for restoring antique furniture.

Enigmi e quiz Vedere anche: Giochi al coperto Vedere anche: Manuali di arte e pittura Vedere anche: Cucito e tessuti Classificare qui: Tintura dei tessuti Classificare qui: Batik e tintura a riserva. Lavorazione dei tappeti Vedere anche: Filatura e tessitura meccanica Vedere anche: Creazione di gioielli e collane Vedere anche: Finiture e rivestimenti decorativi Classificare qui: Lavori in terracotta, ceramica, vetro Vedere anche: Decorazioni in legno Classificare qui: Incisione, modellatura e colatura a stampo Classificare qui: Lavorazione cartacea e libraria Classificare qui: Calligrafia e lettering a mano Vedere anche: Artigianato rurale Vedere anche: Veicoli stradali e a motore: Autobus, tram e veicoli commerciali: Camper vans, Recreational vehicles 1.

Trattori e mezzi agricoli: Manutenzione e manuali dei veicoli Vedere anche: Biciclette e trasporti non motorizzati: Urban rail transit systems Class here: Costruzione e manutenzione delle imbarcazioni Vedere anche: Parodie e imitazioni non narrative Vedere anche: Guide al design, alla decorazione e allo stile degli interni Vedere anche: Guide allo shopping Vedere anche: Manutenzione della casa Vedere anche: Ristrutturazione e ampliamento della casa Vedere anche: Giardinaggio di piante in vaso Use for: Natura e mondo naturale: Dinosauri e mondo preistorico: Animali marini e costieri: Animali da fattoria e da lavoro: Parchi nazionali e riserve naturali: Alberi, fiori e piante selvatiche: Rocce, minerali e fossili: Storia locale Classificare qui: Storia familiare, ricerca genealogica Vedere anche: Guide di viaggio e guide turistiche Use for: For example, 5PS to indicate holidays aimed at a particular group Vedere anche: Letteratura di viaggio classica Classificare qui: Carte e atlanti geografici Vedere anche: Mappe da viaggio Classificare qui: Mappe stradali e piante di città Classificare qui: Libri regalo Classificare qui: Articoli di cartoleria Classificare qui: Articoli di cancelleria Classificare qui: Narrativa a fumetti della tradizione europea Nella tradizione europea, i romanzi a fumetti sono in genere pubblicazioni singole e non parte di una serie, in genere destinate a un pubblico adulto, spesso con grafiche particolari e altro contenuto testuale letterario, di solito seri anziché umoristici; sono opere pubblicate in origine come romanzi a fumetti, non adattamenti di opere testuali.

Libri a fumetti europei: Libri a fumetti americani: Manga e fumetti di stile asiatico Questa sequenza comprende tutti i libri a fumetti giapponesi Manga e di altri paesi asiatici, tra cui coreani Manhwa e cinesi Manhua. Kodomo Manga per bambini, ragazzi e ragazze, età 6—10 anni. Shôjo Manga per ragazze e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Shonen Manga per ragazzi e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Seinen Manga per uomini e donne giovani, dai 16 anni in avanti.

Josei Manga concepito specificamente per donne giovani e adulte. Yaoi Chiamato anche Boy Love; Manga con relazioni omosessuali tra giovani di sesso maschile, ma per giovani lettrici di sesso femminile. Qualifier 5X as appropriate 1. Manga per adulti con scene di natura apertamente sessuale o violenta; utilizzare con Qualificatore 5X se opportuno Vedere anche: Manga designed for adults over 18 years , of an extreme erotic or pornographic nature.

Qualifier 5X as appropriate Vedere anche: Manga featuring young female homosexual relationships often but not exclusively for a young female readership 1.

Narrativa a fumetti e libri a fumetti: Do NOT use for titles that were subsequently made into films etc. Strisce a fumetti Classificare qui: Libri per bambini e ragazzi e Materiale didattico Use with: Libri illustrati per bambini Use with: Libri per la prima infanzia Classificare qui: Storie illustrate Classificare qui: Immaginazione e gioco Classificare qui: Libri interattivi, libri gioco, libri di attività per bambini Utilizzare YBG per i libri di attività e interattivi per bambini, come i libri gioco, i libri con adesivi, ecc.

Libri di attività per bambini: Utilizzare senza altri codici per antologie di varie forme letterarie. Narrativa per bambini e ragazzi: Storie vere in forma romanzata Classificare qui: YFZR codes should never be the main subject code 1.

YFZV codes should never be the main subject code 1. Regioni polari e habitat di alta montagna 1. YNNH for titles about pet care 1. Non-educational books about math and numbers 1. Time travel Use with: Stuffed or soft toys Class here: Fairies, elves, etc 1. UFO ed extraterrestri Class here: Materiale educativo, prima lingua e lingua madre: Media studies Class here: Sports studies, gym class, physical training PT.

Opere di consultazione per bambini e ragazzi: Libri regalo per bambini Classificare qui: Articoli di cartoleria per bambini Classificare qui: Articoli di cancelleria per bambini Classificare qui: Places of interest Use for: Franca Contea Use for: Jura 39 Vedere anche: Alti Pirenei Class here: Pays de la Loire: The Seine Class here: The Dordogne Class here: Refers to the nine counties of Ulster: The Shannon Class here: Welsh Marches Class here: The Lake District Class here: The Thames Class here: The Cotswolds Preferred code: The Pennines Preferred code: Northumberland National Park Class here: Lowland e Borders Scozzesi Class here: Galloway Forest Park The Grampians Class here: Northwest Highlands Class here: Ebridi Esterne Class here: Lewis, Harris, Uist, Benbecula, Barra, etc.

Inner Hebrides Class here: Brecon Beacons Class here: The pilgrim trail, El Camino de Santiago Madeira - Autonomous Region Use for: Azores - Autonomous Region Use for: Appennino Settentrionale Preferred code: Lago d Orta, Lugano, Idro Fiume Po e affluenti Class here: Fiume Arno e affluenti Class here: Fiume Tevere e affluenti Class here: Appennino Centrale Preferred code: Costa Smeralda Preferred code: Isole Eolie Classificare qui: Costiera Amalfitana Preferred code: Tavoliere delle Puglie Preferred code: Appennino Meridionale Preferred code: Transdanubian Mountains Class here: North Hungarian Mountains Class here: Great Hungarian plain Class here: Berounka, Luznice, Otava, Sazava rivers Nitra, Orava rivers 1.

Lika - Karlovac Class here: Fiume Danubio e affluenti Class here: Fiume Reno e affluenti Class here: Fiume Volga e affluenti Class here: Fiume Elba e affluenti Class here: Fiumi Oder-Neisse e affluenti Class here: Fiume Weser e affluenti Class here: Fiume Po e affluenti Prefer code in Northern Italy: Places of interest Vedere anche: Fiume Arno e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: Fiume Tevere e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: The Caucasus Use for: The Balkans Use for: Cotswolds Prefer code in South west England: Pennines Prefer code in North and northeast England: Appennino Settentrionale Prefer code in Northern Italy: Appennino Centrale Prefer code in Central Italy: Appennino Meridionale Prefer code in Southern Italy: Maremma Prefer code in Central Italy: Jordan River Class here: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Class here: Lesser Sunda Islands Class here: East Nusa Tenggara, West Timor Fiume Gange e affluenti Class here: Fiume Indo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Mekong e affluenti Class here: Fiume Yangtze e affluenti Class here: Fiume Giallo e affluenti Class here: Mahalangur Himal Class here: Makalu, Lhotse, Cho Oyu 1.

Repubblica Democratica del Congo Zaire Class here: Fiume Congo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Niger e affluenti Class here: Fiume Nilo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Zambesi e affluenti Class here: Midwest degli Stati Uniti: Parchi Nazionali di Wood Buffalo e dei laghi di Waterton.

Columbia Britannica, Costa Sud: Columbia Britannica, Isola di Vancouver: Columbia Britannica, Costa Centrale: Stretto della Regina Carlotta. Columbia Britannica, Costa Nord: Interlake e Manitoba Centrale: Parco Nazionale di Riding Mountain. Regione di Kivalliq e Parco Nazionale di Ukkusiksalik.

Penisola di Bruce e Parco Nazionale. Isola del Principe Edoardo: Reford Gardens Class here: Mauricie Parco Nazionale de La Mauricie. Mingan Archipelago National Park Regione di Kluane e Parco Nazionale di Kluane.

Whitehorse e Regione dei Laghi Meridionali. Fiume Colorado e affluenti Class here: Rio Grande e affluenti Class here: Río Bravo del Norte. Use for the river, its tributaries, its valley and mouth. Fiume Mississippi-Missouri e affluenti Class here: Fiume St Lawrence e affluenti Class here: Fiume Yukon e affluenti Class here: Fiume Hudson e affluenti Class here: Spanish Virgin Islands Class here: Puerto Rican Virgin Islands Antille Olandesi Class here: Netherlands Antilles Vedere anche: Los Cabos Class here: Mexico City Class here: Valdes Peninsula, Los Alerces Santa Cruz AR Class here: Amazonian region Class here: Cayambe Coca, Yasuni, Sangay La Paz Class here: Tiwanaku, Tiahuanaco, Sorata Santa Cruz Class here: Salar de Uyuni, Torotoro If by chance we taste the wine and do not find that it corresponds to our expectations, we should have no hesitation in bringing up the matter with the sommelier.

We should always remember that the dining experience is one based on pleasure and conviviality; we should therefore not allow a faulty wine to spoil what might be an important occasion. Wine does its job best when it serves the overall dining experience, thanks to its natural capacity, when it is well chosen, to enliven the food without being either intrusive or submissive, cleansing the palate between one mouthful and the next and so reinvigorating our desire to take another bite.

If there is no doubt about our right to be subjective when choosing what wine to match with what food, it is equally certain that some pairings work better than others and are particularly successful in stimulating a general feeling of well-being.

To that end, we will give here some general indications as to possible criteria for selecting wines based on the type of food they are to accompany and suggest some classic examples of pairings. However, we remain convinced that, partly due to the unpredictable way many foods taste when they are cooked, imagination and personal inventiveness cannot but lead to greater interest and enjoyment in the realm of matching wines with food.

This consists in accompanying the dishes of a given region with the classic wines of the same zone, based on a rationale of affinity between their flavors and scents and the championing of typical local products. This rationale for matching calls for one to serve wines that are appropriate for the period of the year, such as cool, fresh whites in summer, vino novello in autumn or red wines in winter; this principle also leads to a corresponding alternative in which one modifies the temperature at which one serves wines slightly cooler in summer, a little warmer in winter.

Matching by similarity is to be sought in those cases where, for the sensations given by the wine and food to be in perfect balance, assonance between their characteristics is desirable. Dry white wines and semi- or fully sparkling wines that are not sweet Brut and Extra Brut are especially suitable, because their acidity and, in the case of bubbly wines, the presence of CO2 favor the secretion of gastric juices that prepare the body for receiving food.

Here the suggestions are similar to those for the aperitif, although in this case the structure of the white wines should be increased, especially if there are shellfish or seafood in general. One can also serve rosé wines or light reds with cold cuts such as salami or Parma ham , even if well-structured and aromatic white wines will go with them perfectly as well. Even though some people suggest that you should only drink water with soups, wine is still the best accompaniment for a good broth or consommé a dry white , a vegetable soup a rosé or a young red , or a particularly flavorful farmhouse soup a medium-weight red.

If the dish is vegetable-based, light, easy-drinking white wines are appropriate; if it contains fish you should serve more structured whites; if it is meat-based you should choose a red wine whose vigorousness reflects that of the flavor of the sauce itself lighter for a Bolognese sauce, richer for game.

If, broadly speaking, it is true to say that you should drink white wine with fish, it is also true that there are many different types of white wine and that there are exceptions to the rule.

Depending on the individual dish in front of you, there are two criteria for choosing what wine to match with it: Here the choice of wine is dependent on how sweet the dessert is; sweet or medium-dry but never Brut sparkling wines are fine, as are sweet still or fortified wines: The general rules are:. There are certain foods whose peculiar characteristics make it impossible — or at least very difficult — for them to be matched with any wine.

There is no choice but to drink water with them, or perhaps some other beverage, such as beer. Explanations Please note that the pages of the Website contain links to third party internet pages which are however not covered by this Policy. The Policy shall be updated by Santa Margherita S. This Policy is provided for the purposes prescribed by Art.

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Certi software per e-mail e browser Web possono anche essere configurati per interrompere il download automatico delle immagini. Winery Vineyard Wines Wine culture. Ecosustainability Hospitality Events Contacts. Courses Wine, but what is wine?

A little bit of unstuffy history Some details about the origins of fine wines The geography of wine: Wine, but what is wine? A little bit of unstuffy history. Some details about the origins of fine wines. Some details about the origins of fine wines We have already mentioned - just above — how Carmignano and Chianti came into being, anticipating to some extent the current denominations of origin.

Barolo Barolo has been known and appreciated since medieval times, but it is only since the midth century, thanks to the involvement of the French enologist Oudart and the impassioned efforts of Count Cavour, that this wine, once sweet and potentially unstable, has begun to be produced as a dry, stable wine that is suitable for aging. Chianti The origins of Chianti can be traced back to the important influence of Grand Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany who, in the early decades of the 18th century — two hundred and fifty years before the creation of the D.

Amarone della Valpolicella One of the Italian wines that is enjoying the most success around the world did not even exist until a few decades ago. Bordeaux While we are on the subject of the English, the wines of Aquitaine also owe their success to British merchants and drinkers. Port and Sherry What these two great wines have in common are not only the English, but especially The geography of wine: Vines are grown throughout the country, with"historic" areas such as: Eastern Europe Wine production in Eastern Europe is of major importance from the point of view of quantity.

Africa South Africa 8. The Americas United States of America The wine regions of Italy. Italy and its wine Regions: Valle d'Aosta Viticulture in the Valle d'Aosta is truly "heroic", yet in this Region producers succeed in making fine wines in spite of the difficulties the climate, mountainous terrain and stony soils that Nature puts in their way.

Piedmont The Alps and the plain, connected by mighty rivers: Lombardy This Region produces a broad range of wine styles, including as it does high mountains and wide valleys but also gentle hillsides that slope down towards the lakes. In Italy there are at present August Albana di Romagna Tuscany 8: Rosso Conero, Vernaccia di Serrapetrona Umbria 2: Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane Campania 3: Cerasuolo di Vittoria Sardinia 1: Terrain or terroir In fact, the two terms are not at all synonymous, as terroir is a much broader and complex concept than just the terrain, or soil.

Various elements are encompassed by this definition, such as: All the tastes of the earth. The operations in the viticulturalphase can be subdivided into two groups: Planting and training operations These have to do with planting or replanting the vineyard and its management during the first few years of its existence.

Among them we can include: Which grape variety will be most in demand over the next few years? How will it behave in terms of quantity and quality, i. Grape production operations These consist of the cultivation techniques used in the ordinary, everyday management of the vineyard, with the aim of achieving a satisfactory balance between vegetation and grape production.

The main ones are: Grape varieties from Italy and around the world. Limiting ourselves only to the most important and famous ones, we can cite: Characteristic aromas of ripe white fruits bananas, apples ; good structure and acidity.

An aromatic variety, it gives wines with attractive hints of peaches and especially of aromatic and officinal herbs sage, nettles, tomato leaves. A very aromatic variety thanks to the high level of terpenic compounds it contains. A highly aromatic grape, with scents of rose petals, grapefruit, lichees and spices.

Viognier Originally from the Rhône valley Condrieu , but now grown in many other countries. It develops its characteristic aroma only when fully ripe and needs good acidity to be well-balanced. Evident aromas of ripe yellow fruits apricots, peaches and white flowers.

Chenin Blanc Itexpresses itself at its best in its area of origin Anjou and Vouvray in the Loire valley , but is also widely grown in other regions, with South Africa and New Zealand being among the most interesting. Subject to attack by noble rot because of its particularly thin skin, it is therefore especially suitable for making sweet wines. Malvasia Grown all over the world under various names and in different biotypes, it makes wines with very varied characteristics, from dry to semi-sweet and sweet, from simple to highly aromatic, from still to semi- or fully sparkling, and from white to red from the black-skinned varieties.

It is difficult to define its characteristics given its differentiation in many varieties. When it is white and aromatic the most widely grown it gives wines with scents of flowers and citrus fruits, with hints of herbs. If vinified in contact with the skins, it gives a copper-colored wine as the grape skins are pink. A wine of considerable structure, even when vinified without the skins, it displays marked fruity perfumes particularly of pears , which are especially persistent.

Many characteristics that are similar to Chardonnay, including a natural predisposition for being made into sparkling wine. It makes wines that are particularly well-structured and delicately aomatic, as long as yields are kept low. The chemical and physical composition of the grapes and of the must. Broadly speaking, then, we can identify the following components: Courses Vinification of red and rosé wines Vinification of white wines Vinification of sparkling wines Vinification of sweet wines and special wines Aging and maturation in casks and barriques.

Vinification of red and rosé wines. This may be done using the following methods: Vinification of white wines. Vinification of sparkling wines. Vinification of sweet wines and special wines.

Aging and maturation in casks and barriques. The properties of wood The first thing to bear in mind is that not all wines are suitable for aging in wood. Large barrels or small barrels? The type of wood There are innumerable variables involved in barrel production which lead to differences, sometimes quite marked, in the aromas the wood will give the wine.

Courses The principal components of wines The main macro-components of fermentation The pH of wine The not too secondary components Some technical details about polyphenols The volatile compounds in wine Sulphur dioxide. The principal components of wines.

If one carries out a physical and chemical analysis of a wine, one will undoubtedly find — in varying quantities — the following substances: The main macro-components of fermentation. Among the main components of a wine we undoubtedly find: Sensory effects If it is present to a high degree, ethyl alcohol provokes a pungent sensation on the nose.

Sugars These are the dominant element in the must following the crushing of the grapes: Sensory effects The presence of sugars causes a particular sensation of sweetness, balancing out both bitterness and acidity, and increasing the roundedness and softness one perceives in the wine.

Acidity The acidity of a wine is a very significant factor in terms of its sensory characteristics freshness of taste, brightness of color and of its keeping potential. Volatile acidity The volatile acidity of a wine is linked to the presence of acetic acid and to a much lesser extent to formic, butyric and propionic acids. The pH of wine. Sensory effects It presents the same characteristics as the total acidity being merely another way of measuring it , with a faintly biting, fresh sensation especially on the sides of the tongues when it is well-balanced pH 3.

The not too secondary components. Sensory effects The dry extract is an important parameter that can give a general idea about the depth, concentration, robustness and body of a wine. Glycerin This is an alcohol that forms naturally during the alcoholic fermentation but which we also find to a marked degree in dried grapes. Its concentration increases in particular according to: Mineral salts These may be salts of potassium, magnesium, calcium or salts of carbonic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids, etc..

Their presence varies between 1. Sensory effects These give the wines particular depth and especially a fresh, tangy flavor. Polysaccharides and macromolecules These are compounds with a high molecular weight that we can find — to a notable degree — in wine when it has been kept for a long time in contact with the lees from the fermentation, because they are to be found mainly in the cell walls of the yeasts.

Some technical details about polyphenols. The principal molecules in the family of polyphenols are: In turn, tannins can be divided up into: The volatile compounds in wine. They can therefore be split up into: Primary aromas In this group are included all the fragrant compounds that come directly from the grapes, where they are already present as sweet-smelling molecules or as precursors potential aromas that will subsequently evolve into real aromas.

We can find the following groups: Among those created pre-fermentation we can list: Among those deriving from the alcoholic fermentation there are: Among those from the malolactic fermentation there are: We can distinguish those that occur in an oxidative environment by means of oxidation by alcohols on aldehydes acetaldehyde and ketones from those in a reductive environment full barrels or other containers and bottles , as a consequence of phenomena of: To these we should certainly add those compounds that are yielded by wooden barrels such as: Always present in wines, this is a substance that performs various functions, carrying out: Sulfur dioxide is used at various times: Sensory effects In very limited doses, it reinforces the aromatic and gustatory sensations; if excessive, it generates acrid, pungent sensations wax matches, sulfur , which become unpleasantly sharp and bitter in the mouth.

Courses Visual assessment The scale of wine colors Olfactory assessment The families of aromas and their main descriptors Assessing taste and texture Wine faults Ideal conditions for tasting. In this way you can examine: By observing the wine while it is being poured and by swirling the glass slowly, you will be able to judge: In assessing the effervescence you will pay attention to: The scale of wine colors.

Greenish yellow This is a pale yellow with green highlights, which tend to diminish over time. Straw yellow This is the most common shade of light yellow, with sometimes quite significant differences in intensity more or less deep.

Golden yellow This is a deep yellow that one finds from certain grape varieties. Amber yellow This is the typical color of certain wines made from dried grapes, of fortified wines and, in any case, of wines that are made from extremely ripe grapes.

Rosé wines There is a broad range of shades for rosé wines: Pale pink This recalls the color of rose petals or of peach blossom. Cherry-red This is a fairly deep pink, which recalls the color of certain varieties of cherries.

Onion skin A deep pink, with highlights that tend towards orange. Red wines Unlike white wines, reds undergo a gradual decrease in the intensity of their color as they age. Purplish red This is intense and tends towards violet: Ruby red This is the most common color: Garnet red A color that tends towards blood red.

Brick red Its orange tones remind us of the color of bricks. The sense of smell has many distinctive features, but in particular we should like to underline the following: A smell, the first time that we perceive it, is memorized in the limbic system, that is to say the irrational part of the brain where we also find emotions, fears, etc.

During olfactory assessment but the same goes for the retronasal stage the following are taken into consideration: Two other evaluations could be added for expert tasters: The families of aromas and their main descriptors. Floral aromas A sub-classification might distinguish between the scents of fresh flowers and those of dried flowers, with the former very present in young wines particularly whites and the latter being found in the bouquet of aged wines.

Fruity aromas This is undoubtedly the group with the largest number of sub-categories, with the general rule - contradicted by many exceptions — that it is easier to associate white wines with pale-fleshed fruits and red wines with red fruits. The classification might therefore be divided up according to the following groups: Vegetal aromas Here there are many sub-categories and different sensory manifestations: The following groups may be considered: Spicy aromas With a few exceptions, these are the preserve of more complex, well-structured wines, most of which will have been matured in wood.

One can distinguish between: Mineral aromas A category of smells that is not easy to classify and which can be interpreted in various different ways.

Marine aromas A category of smells including those of iodine, seaweed and other marine scents, sometimes found in wines produced in areas close to the sea, which also display a marked tangy, saline quality.

Animal aromas If these are marked they represent a fault; if they are merely nuances complementing more fragrant scents they may be typical of a particular place or grape of origin or prolonged maturation of the wine. Lactic aromas These are smells that are to be found in wines especially whites that have undergone malolactic fermentation, with the formation of diacetyl.

Ethereal aromas These derive from the processes of fermentation and also, especially, from those that the wine undergoes during maturation. Chemical aromas These derive from chemical compounds in the wine such as alcohol, ethyl acetate, sulfur dioxide, acetaldehyde and others. Sub-dividing them somewhat artificially into categories, because many faults are often present simultaneously, we can distinguish between: In the former case, they disappear with a brief aeration of the wine; in the latter, they may be permanent, like the odors of rotten eggs deriving from the presence of hydrogen sulfide or mercaptans oxidation, identifiable in notes of baked apples or rotten almonds and walnuts acetic, because of the presence of acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate various other smells, such as the odors of stables and horse sweat because of the presence of ethyl phenols, geraniums due to the degradation of sorbic acid, cork taint from trichloroanisole, odors of medicines, of disinfectant, of celluloid and of plastic, mold, old barrels, etc.

Assessing taste and texture. Taste There are four flavors perceived by specific tastebuds in different parts of our tongues. The progressive scale of intensity in the four fundamental flavors may be considered to be as follows: Texture In the mouth, apart from the strictly gustatory sensations, we may also perceive a number of sensations that have todo with our sense of touch. These sensations may be subdivided into the following categories: Ideal conditions for tasting.

Courses Choosing and storing wine Wine service A glass for each wine The sequence for drinking wines Reading the label Special wines Wine and health. Choosing and storing wine. Which wines to choose The most enjoyable moment is choosing the wines to put in your cellar.

The right place It is always better to keep wine underground, but not all cellars are suitable for this purpose. Here then are some suggestions, which are open to modification according to the season a bit cooler in summer, a bit warmer in winter and the temperature of the food being served cool if the food is cold, a little warmer if the dish is warm or boiling hot: For dessert wines it all depends what they are being served with.

The sweeter the dish, the higher the serving temperature will be. A glass for each wine. The sequence for drinking wines. The sequence for serving should follow these rules: Clearly, each one of these rules — because of the overlap of characteristics within individual wines — has some exceptions, as outlined below: If I have a wine that has been analyzed chemically as having One can show the total alcohol content by indicating, as well as the actual one, a second percentage, giving the level of alcohol that you would have if the residual sugars were to be fermented out: The following types of wine are considered special wines: Fortified wines These are produced by adding neutral spirit or brandy to grape must during fermentation or to a finished wine.

The most famous fortified wines are Marsala, Port and Madeira. Sparkling wines The difference between frizzante semi-sparkling and spumante sparkling wines is in the pressure of carbon dioxide contained in them: In the case of sparkling wines, depending on the quantity of residual sugars in the bottle, we find the following indications: Courses Choosing the wine General criteria for matching food and wine Specific recommendations for food and wine matching Difficult foods to match with wine even though nothing is impossible General criteria for matching food and wine.

The basic principles may be summarized as follows: Matching according to tradition This consists in accompanying the dishes of a given region with the classic wines of the same zone, based on a rationale of affinity between their flavors and scents and the championing of typical local products. Matching according to the season This rationale for matching calls for one to serve wines that are appropriate for the period of the year, such as cool, fresh whites in summer, vino novello in autumn or red wines in winter; this principle also leads to a corresponding alternative in which one modifies the temperature at which one serves wines slightly cooler in summer, a little warmer in winter.

On the contrary, with delicate foods similarly light wines are recommended; particularly scented foods because of the use of spices and herbs should be matched with very aromatic wines. Specific recommendations for food and wine matching. Aperitifs Dry white wines and semi- or fully sparkling wines that are not sweet Brut and Extra Brut are especially suitable, because their acidity and, in the case of bubbly wines, the presence of CO2 favor the secretion of gastric juices that prepare the body for receiving food.

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Libri a fumetti europei: Libri a fumetti americani: Manga e fumetti di stile asiatico Questa sequenza comprende tutti i libri a fumetti giapponesi Manga e di altri paesi asiatici, tra cui coreani Manhwa e cinesi Manhua.

Kodomo Manga per bambini, ragazzi e ragazze, età 6—10 anni. Shôjo Manga per ragazze e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Shonen Manga per ragazzi e adolescenti, età 10—15 anni. Seinen Manga per uomini e donne giovani, dai 16 anni in avanti. Josei Manga concepito specificamente per donne giovani e adulte. Yaoi Chiamato anche Boy Love; Manga con relazioni omosessuali tra giovani di sesso maschile, ma per giovani lettrici di sesso femminile. Qualifier 5X as appropriate 1. Manga per adulti con scene di natura apertamente sessuale o violenta; utilizzare con Qualificatore 5X se opportuno Vedere anche: Manga designed for adults over 18 years , of an extreme erotic or pornographic nature.

Qualifier 5X as appropriate Vedere anche: Manga featuring young female homosexual relationships often but not exclusively for a young female readership 1. Narrativa a fumetti e libri a fumetti: Do NOT use for titles that were subsequently made into films etc.

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YFZV codes should never be the main subject code 1. Regioni polari e habitat di alta montagna 1. YNNH for titles about pet care 1. Non-educational books about math and numbers 1. Time travel Use with: Stuffed or soft toys Class here: Fairies, elves, etc 1. UFO ed extraterrestri Class here: Materiale educativo, prima lingua e lingua madre: Media studies Class here: Sports studies, gym class, physical training PT.

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Lika - Karlovac Class here: Fiume Danubio e affluenti Class here: Fiume Reno e affluenti Class here: Fiume Volga e affluenti Class here: Fiume Elba e affluenti Class here: Fiumi Oder-Neisse e affluenti Class here: Fiume Weser e affluenti Class here: Fiume Po e affluenti Prefer code in Northern Italy: Places of interest Vedere anche: Fiume Arno e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: Fiume Tevere e affluenti Prefer code in Central Italy: The Caucasus Use for: The Balkans Use for: Cotswolds Prefer code in South west England: Pennines Prefer code in North and northeast England: Appennino Settentrionale Prefer code in Northern Italy: Appennino Centrale Prefer code in Central Italy: Appennino Meridionale Prefer code in Southern Italy: Maremma Prefer code in Central Italy: Jordan River Class here: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Class here: Lesser Sunda Islands Class here: East Nusa Tenggara, West Timor Fiume Gange e affluenti Class here: Fiume Indo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Mekong e affluenti Class here: Fiume Yangtze e affluenti Class here: Fiume Giallo e affluenti Class here: Mahalangur Himal Class here: Makalu, Lhotse, Cho Oyu 1.

Repubblica Democratica del Congo Zaire Class here: Fiume Congo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Niger e affluenti Class here: Fiume Nilo e affluenti Class here: Fiume Zambesi e affluenti Class here: Midwest degli Stati Uniti: Parchi Nazionali di Wood Buffalo e dei laghi di Waterton.

Columbia Britannica, Costa Sud: Columbia Britannica, Isola di Vancouver: Columbia Britannica, Costa Centrale: Stretto della Regina Carlotta. Columbia Britannica, Costa Nord: Interlake e Manitoba Centrale: The composition of the grapes and, consequently, of the must represents the element that undoubtedly has the most significant effect on the production of quality wines.

What varies considerably, thus resulting in fruit that is completely different from the point of view of quality, is the quantity of each constituent and the variability in the relationships between them, depending on the degree of ripeness of the grapes, the growing area, the clone and grape variety, the weather conditions, cultivation techniques and extraction methods used many of these elements will be conditioned by both enological and commercial factors.

As soon as the grapes have been picked they are taken to the cellar. Those destined for use in red wine are crushed and de-stemmed, using special equipment that does not damage the skins and pips of the grapes. The stems and pips, on the other hand, are normally discarded, because they give rise to aggressive and unpleasant taste sensations. The must or juice is then transferred to the tank where the alcoholic fermentation will take place: An appropriate dose of sulphur dioxide is then added which, besides having an anti-oxidant and disinfectant role, also helps to loosen the coloring matter contained in the skins as well as to determine the selection of the yeasts.

The activity of the yeasts Saccaromices Cerevisiae , which are responsible principally for the transformation of the sugars into alcohol, also leads — during the fermentation — to an increase in temperature. Another product of the transformation is carbon dioxide, which is clearly perceptible because of the gurgling of the must.

This cap has to be continually broken up and re-immersed in the must so as to encourage the extraction of the coloring matter. When the daily measurements which are usually carried out in the morning and the evening show that the percentage of alcohol in the wine has stabilised, it is more than likely that the fermentation is over.

This usually occurs when all the fermentable sugars have been transformed into alcohol, but it is possible in the case of musts that are very rich in sugars, such as those from partially-dried grapes that a certain quantity of sugars is still present and that the yeasts — partly because of the antagonistic activity of the alcohol that they have produced — will become less efficient and eventually be unable to continue doing their job.

The wine that has been obtained is cloudy and is full of gas and solid matter. The liquid must therefore be separated from the solids.

This stage is referred to as draining, or drawing, off. After this operation is concluded, the wine is clear and clean and may be transferred into stainless steel tanks if the wine is to be drunk young or into wooden barrels if it is to be aged. Nearly always, especially for wines which are to be aged, the alcoholic fermentation is followed by malolactic fermentation, a process which transforms malic acid into the gentler lactic acid, thereby softening the wine and giving it a more mature, complex bouquet.

As already mentioned, the substances which give a wine its color are mainly in the skins of the grapes; in order to obtain a white wine, the skins must therefore be removed before vinification. This means that it is possible to obtain white wines from both white and dark-skinned grapes.

From the skins one can extract, thanks to special techniques such as cryomaceration maceration carried out at very low temperatures , the primary aromatic substances that are typical of high-quality white grape varieties. This system calls for the must and skins to be chilled in order to inhibit fermentation but allows these substances to pass into the must.

Settling, followed perhaps by filtration or centrifuging will make it absolutely clear and ready to be fermented. During the alcoholic fermentation the tanks are only filled to four-fifths of their capacity so that the gas that develops during fermentation can occupy the space left above the must, protecting it from any damage which could result from contact with oxygen.

It is essential, in order to guarantee the finesse and the integrity of the primary characteristics of the original grape variety, to exercise very careful control over the whole of the fermentation process, by means of the systems mentioned above and perhaps also the use of specially selected yeasts. For most white wines, or at least those designed for drinking young, the malolactic fermentation, which transforms malic acid into lactic acid, is prevented from taking place, so as to maintain fresh aromas and vibrant acidity.

When the yeasts have used up all the sugars contained in the must - between ten and twenty days for white wines - the wine thus obtained goes either into stainless steel or wood, depending on the style of wine the producer is seeking to make. Prior to bottling, the wine is filtered using particular equipment that guarantees that it is absolutely clear and clean, thus avoiding bacteria or undesired yeast cells from causing refermentation.

Sparkling wines can be produced by two different methods: For both methods the first stage is to obtain a base wine, following traditional vinification procedures for making white wine. Various grapes may be used for the production of sparkling wines: The grapes to be used for sparkling wines are usually harvested just before they are completely ripe so they have the most fragrant aromas possible and good acidity which will give the wine freshness and longevity.

In the classic method the base wine is bottled and undergoes a second fermentation in the bottle. At the end of this period the bottles are moved to special wooden trestles in the shape of a capital A, with holes to hold the bottles. After a short time the part of the wine immersed in the solution freezes and forms a cylinder of ice, containing all of the deposit that has formed whilst the wine has been maturing on its lees.

The bottle is then uncorked mechanically and the little cylinder is expelled. Now the bottle has to be filled up to replace the liquid which has been lost. With the Charmat or Martinotti method there is some argument about exactly who invented this method, which appears to have been invented by the Italian Martinotti and then perfected — and registered - by the Frenchman Charmat the base wine, with added sugar and selected yeasts, is placed in stainless steel pressurized tanks which are hermetically sealed and can resist high pressures.

This causes the yeasts to die and fall to the bottom. Corking and muzzling take place immediately afterwards. Prior to the alcoholic fermentation, must is essentially sugary water. The action of the yeasts changes the sugars into alcohol. In order to obtain sweet wines, therefore, all that is required is to limit this process. The most commonly used technique is to interrupt the fermentation when the desired alcohol level has been reached and there is still a substantial quantity of unfermented sugars.

The must is filtered using a very fine mesh to trap the yeasts, then the fermentation is allowed to start up once again: In this case, the grapes undergo natural or artificial drying, and their sugars thus become more concentrated because of the evaporation of their water content.

Once they have reached the required degree of drying, the grapes are vinified as for white wine or for red wine, if the grapes are dark-skinned with a fairly slow fermentation at low temperatures so as not to cause the aromas to be affected. The wine will also have to remain quite a long time in the cellar in order to refine its character. These types of wine may be considered mature after three to four years. One of the most famous examples is Tuscan Vin Santo, which is made from the best bunches of grapes.

These are allowed to dry on mats or trelliswork, generally in attics which are well aired all year round and where temperatures vary markedly. Moscato Rosa a sweet red wine from the Trentino and Friuli areas is, on the other hand, left to overripen on the vine. The alcoholic fermentation takes place in small vessels and, after the malolactic fermentation, the young wine is sweetened with concentrated must.

The wine is then left to age in small barrels for years. The so-called botrytized wines are another matter again: This mold causes changes inside the berries themselves that alter the grapes' metabolism, causing a substantial increase in aromatic substances.

In certain cases it is possible to add ethyl alcohol or concentrated must to these wines in order to increase their alcoholic strength. The vinification is similar to the process used for wines made from dried grapes. Stainless steel tanks, as well as fiberglass or glass-lined cement containers, may however be used for storage or for specific production tasks.

The first thing to bear in mind is that not all wines are suitable for aging in wood. So certain wines, made from high-quality grapes and particular varieties, derive elements which give them greater structure, complexity and aging qualities from their time in contact with wood, as well as very specific aromatic notes. In any case, the degree of this type of contact is of great importance, so as to prevent excessive scents of wood from overpowering the primary aromas of the wine.

Not only the origin of the wood, but also its cut, seasoning, toasting and even washing have an influence on the aromas that the barrel will impart to the wine , as do other fundamental variables such as its size, its newness and for how long it is used. It belongs to the French tradition of winemaking and is usually made of oak from the forests of Allier, Limousin, Tronçais, Nevers, Vosges and the Massif Central and, more recently, from the Rocky Mountains or even from wood from Eastern Europe.

Compared with a large barrel — normally made of Slavonian oak - in the barrique more of the surface area of the wine is in contact with the wood, which means that there is a greater exchange of substances with the wood.

This does not necessarily mean, however, that small barrels are preferable to big ones. There are innumerable variables involved in barrel production which lead to differences, sometimes quite marked, in the aromas the wood will give the wine. The first factor to consider is the area the wood is from: In lighter, damper soils in the Limousin, for example the wood is more porous and with more aggressive tannins, so it is more suitable for brandy. The opposite is the case in more lime-rich terrain in the Allier, but also in the Tronçais and the Vosges ; the wood will be milder and less porous.

The first stage is choosing the wood. The trunk is cut to obtain the strips of wood for the staves. The best technique is to split the wood. Compared with sawing, this has the advantage of preserving and respecting the fibers, keeping them intact. The staves must be seasoned and then dried: The wood may be dried in the open air or in special rooms, with obvious differences in the time required.

Drying in air-conditioned, well-ventilated rooms can give the required moisture level in a short time, but care is required: Natural drying occurs by simply leaving the strips of wood stacked in a large area in the open air. The producers work on the rule of thumb of a minimum of one year for each centimeter of thickness of the wood. In the case of barriques, this means two or three years, or sometimes more. Natural seasoning not only results in a normal drying process, but the action of the atmosphere and of micro-organisms means that the wood has an increased capacity for releasing a vast range of aromatic substances.

There are many substances that make up the various types of wine and which consequently have an effect on their different taste profiles. These depend not only on the quantity in which the various components are present but especially on their reciprocal interrelationships. The substances themselves are the consequence of many factors, such as the grape variety, pedo-climatic conditions, viticultural techniques, methods of vinification and maturation, etc.

If one carries out a physical and chemical analysis of a wine, one will undoubtedly find — in varying quantities — the following substances:.

The starting point for the entire process is the grapes themselves, whose chemical and physical composition can be measured when they reach the winery and after they have been transformed into must. The options of malolactic fermentation and storage in wooden barrels — as well as a whole host of other winery operations — will also create further compounds that characterize the wine in various ways.

In order to calculate the total level of alcohol one has to multiply the percentage of fermentable sugars in the must by a coefficient of 0. The total alcohol level results from the sum of the actual alcohol and that which can potentially be developed by the transformation of fermentable sugars that are still present medium-sweet or sweet wines.

If it is present to a high degree, ethyl alcohol provokes a pungent sensation on the nose. It gives a generally sweet, rounded flavor on the palate and, especially if it is high, a sensation of apparent warmth. These are the dominant element in the must following the crushing of the grapes: The presence of sugars causes a particular sensation of sweetness, balancing out both bitterness and acidity, and increasing the roundedness and softness one perceives in the wine.

In the case of truly sweet wines, these sensations have to be balanced by marked acidity in order for the wine not to appear cloying. The acidity of a wine is a very significant factor in terms of its sensory characteristics freshness of taste, brightness of color and of its keeping potential.

Total acidity can be divided up between fixed acidity acids that do not evaporate if the wine is distilled and volatile acidity acids that volatilize when the wine is boiled. When one talks in general terms about the acidity of a wine one means just its fixed acidity, unless one specifies its volatile acidity as well.

Among the fixed acids are tartaric, malic, citric all present in the must as well as succinic and lactic acids deriving from the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations , while the volatile acids include acetic, butyric and propionic acids these last two are present only in very tiny quantities.

The volatile acidity of a wine is linked to the presence of acetic acid and to a much lesser extent to formic, butyric and propionic acids. When measuring the acidity of a wine, reference is often made to its pH.

Its value can vary between 2. The pH normally has a value that is in inverse proportion to that of the fixed acidity of the wine the higher this is, the lower the pH. It presents the same characteristics as the total acidity being merely another way of measuring it , with a faintly biting, fresh sensation especially on the sides of the tongues when it is well-balanced pH 3. It also represents a reinforcing element for the astringency of the wine. An analysis that comprises in a quantitative manner many of these substances excluding water, alcohols, volatile acids and aromas is to be obtained from the dry extract.

As the dry extract is also characterized by the presence of sugars, so as not to have wayward readings when dealing with medium-sweet or sweet wines it is better to talk about the net dry extract total dry extract minus the sugars. The dry extract is an important parameter that can give a general idea about the depth, concentration, robustness and body of a wine.

The higher it is, the more these characteristics should be apparent. This is an alcohol that forms naturally during the alcoholic fermentation but which we also find to a marked degree in dried grapes. They are contained in the skins of the grapes and their presence in the wine depends on the extraction and vinification methods used. It is in fact the more or less prolonged contact of the fermenting must with the skins that determine the extent to which these substances pass into the must and then the wine, characterizing its classification both in terms of color white, rosé, red, deep red and sensory qualities.

Consequently, white wines have a lower polyphenolic content than red wines, with a concentration in the former of between 0. Phenolic substances may be divided up beween non-flavonoids and flavonoids see in greater detail below ; amongst the latter we find the two main categories, the anthocyanins and the tannins. Among the many variables that influence the quality of tannins is, in particular, their origin, because they are contained not only in the skins but also in the stalks and seeds pips as well as in the wood of the barrels used for maturation.

Those from the stalks and seeds in particular, but also from low-quality barrels or from the skins of unripe grapes can give aggressive green tannins and bitter notes bitter tannins. These may be salts of potassium, magnesium, calcium or salts of carbonic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids, etc.. These give the wines particular depth and especially a fresh, tangy flavor. These are compounds with a high molecular weight that we can find — to a notable degree — in wine when it has been kept for a long time in contact with the lees from the fermentation, because they are to be found mainly in the cell walls of the yeasts.

This manifests itself in different ways and more or less intensely: Even though these are present, in terms of weight, in quantities of only around 0. Volatile molecules can be categorized in a whole host of different ways: They can therefore be split up into:.

In this group are included all the fragrant compounds that come directly from the grapes, where they are already present as sweet-smelling molecules or as precursors potential aromas that will subsequently evolve into real aromas. These derive from compounds that form during the process of maturation and bottle-aging, as a result of enzymatic and physico-chemical activity that takes place in the wood or in the bottle. We can distinguish those that occur in an oxidative environment by means of oxidation by alcohols on aldehydes acetaldehyde and ketones from those in a reductive environment full barrels or other containers and bottles , as a consequence of phenomena of:.

Free sulfur dioxide is that which has not combined with the other substances in the wine: In very limited doses, it reinforces the aromatic and gustatory sensations; if excessive, it generates acrid, pungent sensations wax matches, sulfur , which become unpleasantly sharp and bitter in the mouth. It is often the main cause of the classic headache. The fascinating process of tasting a wine begins with its visual assessment.

This is particularly important for the information it gives us about the state of health of the wine, the way it has been stored, its evolution, structure and the type of wine. In this way you can examine:. By observing the wine while it is being poured and by swirling the glass slowly, you will be able to judge:.

Finally, for semi-sparkling and sparkling wines, you have to evaluate the effervescence due to the carbon dioxide that is liberated when the wine is poured, causing the foam and the bubbles or perlage. In assessing the effervescence you will pay attention to:.

In still wines, effervescence — if not desired as a a light and inviting pétillance — is, on the other hand, symptomatic of a fault and is the sign that refermentation has taken place inside the bottle: There are many variables that influence the color of a wine: The color nonetheless remains the initial indicator in the evaluation of a wine and is measured in relation to other aspects which have to be borne in mind during the visual examination.

Here are the scales of colors for the different types of wine. It should be remembered that the color of white wines also tends to intensify with age. Grayish hues and dull colors are undesirable as they are often signs that something is wrong with the wine. This is a pale yellow with green highlights, which tend to diminish over time. This color is found in fresh young wines, sometimes from grapes that have been picked rather early.

This is the most common shade of light yellow, with sometimes quite significant differences in intensity more or less deep. This is a deep yellow that one finds from certain grape varieties.

It is also often to be found in the highlights of full-bodied white wines that have a certain aging potential or have been matured in wood, or those whose grapes have undergone a period of drying. This is the typical color of certain wines made from dried grapes, of fortified wines and, in any case, of wines that are made from extremely ripe grapes. There is a broad range of shades for rosé wines: Yellow-orange coloring indicates age, a negative characteristic for rosés, wines that stand out for their freshness and youthful fruity aromas.

Unlike white wines, reds undergo a gradual decrease in the intensity of their color as they age. Purplish red is typical of younger wines, whereas older wines display definite orangey hints. This is the most common color: It in fact indicates the age at which such wines are at their best. A color that tends towards blood red. It is the first sign of maturity in a wine: Some wines display garnet nuances even in youth, as is the case with those made from Pinot Nero or Nebbiolo grapes.

Its orange tones remind us of the color of bricks. This shade is the typical indicator of aging: The second stage in tasting is the olfactory assessment of the wine.

But before going into greater detail we have to understand how an odorous perception originates. It stems from the active interaction of a large number of volatile molecules with the receptors specific proteins that are present in our mucous membranes.

When we breathe in direct olfaction or when we chew our food retronasal olfaction these molecules reach the olfactory epithelium at the back of our nasal cavities, taking us into a world of incredible sensations that are often difficult to interpret.

The sense of smell has many distinctive features, but in particular we should like to underline the following:. During olfactory assessment but the same goes for the retronasal stage the following are taken into consideration:.

What did you understand? That is why in the olfactory assessment of a wine we find descriptors which draw analogies with an object normally characterized by that smell. Finding references in our olfactory memory to describe the aromas of a wine is, therefore, not just a game, but a real way of specifying the characteristics of the scents that are present in that glass. There are various classifications for cataloguing the smells to be found in wine: A sub-classification might distinguish between the scents of fresh flowers and those of dried flowers, with the former very present in young wines particularly whites and the latter being found in the bouquet of aged wines.

One often finds in young wines, then, scents of acacia blossom, hawthorn, jasmine, honeysuckle, linden, wisteria, iris, orange blossom, rose, violet, narcissus, broom In more mature wines, such as those based on Nebbiolo, one is more likely to associate the bouquet with flowers such as dried roses or violets. This is undoubtedly the group with the largest number of sub-categories, with the general rule - contradicted by many exceptions — that it is easier to associate white wines with pale-fleshed fruits and red wines with red fruits.

The classification might therefore be divided up according to the following groups:. Here there are many sub-categories and different sensory manifestations: These, too, are to be found in rich, full-bodied wines: With a few exceptions, these are the preserve of more complex, well-structured wines, most of which will have been matured in wood.

From the Greek empyreuma, empyreumatos, coal covered with ashes for lighting a fire. These are particular smells linked to aging in wood, whose positive or negative qualities depend on the intensity with which they manifest themselves. They include cocoa, chocolate, coffee, roasted almonds, crusty bread, caramel, tar and the sensation of smokiness.

A category of smells that is not easy to classify and which can be interpreted in various different ways. It refers to notes that recall diverse sensations, including flint, chalk, petroleum, graphite, iron, etc. A category of smells including those of iodine, seaweed and other marine scents, sometimes found in wines produced in areas close to the sea, which also display a marked tangy, saline quality.

This is the case with Muscadet from the Loire and with some Grillos from the zone around Trapani. If these are marked they represent a fault; if they are merely nuances complementing more fragrant scents they may be typical of a particular place or grape of origin or prolonged maturation of the wine.

These are smells that are to be found in wines especially whites that have undergone malolactic fermentation, with the formation of diacetyl. They are reminiscent of fresh butter and cheese. In certain cases, they may be confused with animal smells butyric acid. These derive from the processes of fermentation and also, especially, from those that the wine undergoes during maturation.

Nail varnish, boiled sweets, soap, wax These derive from chemical compounds in the wine such as alcohol, ethyl acetate, sulfur dioxide, acetaldehyde and others. Sub-dividing them somewhat artificially into categories, because many faults are often present simultaneously, we can distinguish between:.

The principal stage of tasting is that which is often referred to as gustatory analysis. There are four flavors perceived by specific tastebuds in different parts of our tongues. Even if the theory of the geography of taste exactly where these various tastebuds are on our tongues is not entirely cut and dried as at first thought, we can nevertheless affirm — at least to simplify matters — that sweetness is perceived mainly on the tip, saltiness and acidity principally on the sides and bitterness at the back of the tongue.

The progressive scale of intensity in the four fundamental flavors may be considered to be as follows:. In the mouth, apart from the strictly gustatory sensations, we may also perceive a number of sensations that have todo with our sense of touch. These molecules then reach the olfactory epithelium by means of our retronasal passages, giving rise once again to perceptions similar to those of smell. First take a little wine into your mouth to get it used to the taste and then take a bigger sip.

Hold the wine first of all in the front of your mouth and then release it into the rest of the oral cavity. By overall structure we mean the concentration, texture and body of the wine,resulting from all the substances that make up its extract polyphenols, fixed acids, salts, sugars, glycerin.

By intensity of the retronasal sensations we mean all the sensations you perceive indirectly after swirling the wine around your mouth and swallowing it. We should not forget, in fact, that the sense of smell plays a fundamental role in the overall sensations that we perceive in our mouths; the easier these impressions are to perceive and identify, the more intense and precise the retronasal sensations will be.

The palate should confirm the descriptors we found on the nose and also give us new ones, which again recall those analogies we listed for the olfactory assessment. It is the aromatic sensations, in fact, that are the dominant ones: The overall sensation that you perceive will be considerably less strong, in the same way as when you have a heavy cold.

Sometimes it may happen that you notice disagreeable odors, which are caused by faults in the wine. There are certain factors that, even they are not the actual cause, favor the onset of problems, because they are symptoms of weakness or instability in the wine.

The best known odor is that of cork taint, which we perceive on the nose but even more clearly on the palate. This is passed on to the wine from the cork when it is attacked by parasitic fungi the trichloroanisole or TCA molecule. Another fault may be a smell of refermentation and dregs a disagreeable odor rather like drains or flatulence which comes from the wine having been in contact too long with dirty, oxidized lees or from wines that have undergone an unwanted and therefore uncontrolled second fermentation in the bottle.

This often happens with wines purchased in demijohns and bottled at home. A third fault may be caused by bacteria that develop in barrels that have been badly looked after and which have not been cleaned with the proper antiseptics a smell of dry or rotten wood. The smell of oxidation like that of Marsala or Madeira is due to excessive contact with oxygen. This is an irreversible process and is a serious fault, except for those wines such as Marsala, for example whose main characteristic is that they are oxidized.

Another fault one often comes across is reduction a closed-up, slightly musty odor , which is perceptible in wines that have spent a long time in bottle or at any rate in an environment where oxygen is lacking. A smell of sulphur is caused by excessive use of sulphur dioxide. This is noticeable both on the nose and on the palate and is similar to the smell of wax matches or wet wool.

One may also find the smell of rotten eggs hydrogen sulphide , an irremediable fault caused by adding too much potassium metabisulphite prior to the fermentation; it can also result from a process of reduction during the alcoholic fermentation.

The smell of vinegar, or acescence, is due to the presence — beyond acceptable limits — of acetic acid volatile acidity. It is particularly perceptible on the nose because of the correlated formation of ethyl acetate because of the activity of acetic bacteria an aerobic environment, blocked fermentation, etc. A fault that one finds increasingly often in wines, and particularly in reds, is the smell of animal sweat or of stables; this is connected to the presence of ethyl phenol from the fermentation of Brettanomyces yeasts in jargon the fault is referred to as Brett.

Wines made from certain varieties such as Cabernet or Lagrein are prone to Brett, but especially the contamination of wooden containers such as barriques can cause the onset and spread of this fault in wines that are matured in them.

It is best to taste wines when you are in good physical and mental shape. It is a waste of time tasting when you have a headache, your stomach is out of sorts or you have to rush off to get to another appointment.

The best time of day is late in the morning, on an empty stomach, when you are just starting to feel hungry and all your senses are at their sharpest. Your oral cavity should be free of the taste of sweets or cigarettes, and you should also avoid the use of scents or cosmetics. The tasting sequence is also important: Lastly, do not allow yourself to be influenced and do not try to influence others. We do not mean by this that — in unofficial tastings — you have to follow a strict, silent ceremonial, but just that we can often be conditioned by the opinions of others especially of people we consider to be more expert than ourselves.

Be calm and attentive when carrying out the organoleptic analysis of a wine, and always bear in mind that there are innumerable types of wine, made from an infinite number of grape varieties in the most far-flung regions of the world.

No more running out at the last minute to buy a bottle of wine just before dinner. No more splendid meals accompanied by a mixed array of bottles which are usually good, too brought by the guests. The time has come to make up your own cellar. It only needs to be a small one but, if you give at least some thought to the quality and types of wine you purchase, it will be enough to ensure that you have a collection that is always ready to accompany the most important gastronomic occasions or just enable you to enjoy a simple evening with friends.

The most enjoyable moment is choosing the wines to put in your cellar. Always try to taste the wines you intend to buy and try to buy at least six bottles: It is also interesting to see how a wine evolves over time and so really understand its value in overall terms. It is best not to keep large stocks of wine that should be drunk young and have no potential for aging.

On the other hand, important wines that can bear a certain amount of bottle-aging should be checked periodically. Wine is a living thing: It therefore becomes very important to monitor your wine so as to understand when and how to drink it. It can be a shocking experience to drink a wine which is too old. Uncorking a bottle which is too young, on the other hand, is only a minor error and easily put right.

Those who enjoy inviting friends would do better to have a broad, diverse range of wines, including types of wine suitable for all sorts of occasions and dishes, from appetizers to dessert.

It is always better to keep wine underground, but not all cellars are suitable for this purpose. Mold-covered walls — along with cobwebs and dust - may suggest an atmosphere of romantic antiquity, but for real wine-lovers they are a clear sign of excessive damp. To prevent any problems and especially to protect the labels, you can wrap the bottles in cling film. Bear in mind that the worst damage to wine is caused by sudden fluctuations in temperature.

Letting light into the cellar, as well as excessive humidity and vibration even from loud noises , can do equal harm. There is an old saying — but still a true one — that in an ideal cellar more water should flow than wine.

This merely confirms that a cellar needs to be kept very clean. The bottles should be taken from their case, cleaned with a dry cloth and laid down in a horizontal position. The wine has in fact to remain in contact with the cork; if this does not happen the cork may dry out and no longer guarantee a tight seal.

The wine racks that are readily available in the shops nowadays are very useful for storing your bottles: When choosing wine racks, bear in mind that each bottle weighs around 1. Good cellar management calls for you to place the white wines lower down in the racks, where the temperature is lower, and the reds higher up where it is warmer.

This means that the wines will be kept at a temperature that is closer to that at which they should be served. One should not consider these as absolutely strict parameters but as ideal suggestions in order to enjoy your wines at their best. Also, lower temperatures accentuate acidic and tannic tastes, while higher temperatures emphasize sweetness, aromas and the alcohol component but also unpleasant smells!

Sistemi operativi per palmari Class here: Where did the form of the body come from? Diritto internazionale, trasporti e commercio: Bibliografie, cataloghi Vedere anche: Pays de la Loire: Recent research, as we have already mentioned, has identified another element that it is important to take into account in deciding when to harvest the grapes, especially when these are to be used for red wine.